Epilepsy patients whose seizures are not controllable via medications may be treated with resective surgery to remove brain tissue where the seizures appear to be focused. This highly specialized surgery involves the use of video EEG monitoring and “mapping” procedures to ensure the most precise targeting of tissue, and can last up to seven hours. The most often-performed type of respective surgery for epilepsy is an anterior temporal lobectomy, where the entire anterior portion of the brain’s temporal lobe is removed. This is done via a craniotomy, where the neurosurgeon uses a surgical drill to open a flap of bone in the skull and then cut through the protective membranes to expose and remove the anterior temporal lobe. He or she then ensures that each layer of tissue that has been cut is properly closed, replaces the bone flap and closes the scalp with sutures.