Hydrocephalus surgery is performed to allow excess cerebrospinal fluid to drain out of the brain in order to relieve inflammation and pressure that can cause brain damage. This is most often accomplished with the placement of a shunt. An alternative form of the surgery that may be performed in children with obstructive or non-communicating hydrocephalus is called pediatric endoscopic third ventriculostomy, which select pediatric neurosurgeons can perform. In this surgery, a bypass is created to allow the cerebrospinal fluid to flow over the brain’s surface and be absorbed into the bloodstream. This procedure negates the need for a shunt, but may not be appropriate for hydrocephalus patients who are under the age of two, have previously been treated with whole brain irradiation, have a history of infections or have communicating hydrocephalus.