Vesicoureteral reflux is a condition in which there is an abnormal flow of urine from the bladder back into the tubes that connect the kidney with the bladder. This condition is most often diagnosed in infants and young children, and can be responsible for recurring urinary tract infections. It occurs either because of a defect in the valve that normally prevents urine from flowing backward into the ureters or due to an infection or disease process that causes the urinary tract to malfunction. In the former case, a child may outgrow the problem without medical treatment. However, oral antibiotics may be prescribed to safeguard the kidneys from infection. When necessary, vesicoureteral reflux can be corrected via an open or minimally invasive surgical procedure. Many such urologic conditions are addressed via advanced and extremely precise robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery.