Bladder exstrophy is a congenital defect in the way that the bladder and its surrounding structures are formed during fetal development. While a normal bladder is round, a bladder with exstrophy is flattened. Meanwhile, the skin, muscle and pelvic bone that join to form the lower part of the abdomen do not form correctly, allowing part of the bladder and nearby tissues to essentially form inside-out. This condition is sometimes discovered prior to a baby’s birth and will be readily distinguishable when the baby is born. Its cause is unknown, but research has shown that babies conceived with the help of fertility treatments are seven times more likely to develop bladder exstrophy. The condition is treated via staged reconstruction surgery or a single reconstructive surgery.