An autologous transplant is a procedure that takes a person’s own stem cells and returns them to the body at a later stage to help replace damaged cells due to high doses of chemotherapy. This procedure is used to treat a variety of blood cancers, including leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma; as well as some solid tumors, such as breast cancer, testicular cancer and osteosarcoma. Most stem cells are taken from your own blood and preserved until your doctor determines it is the right time to introduce them back into the body. This usually comes after a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (this combination is also referred to as “conditioning therapy”) about a week before the transplant. After this treatment, your stem cells are thawed and transplanted back into your blood stream, similar to a blood transfusion. These stem cells then make their way into your bone marrow and begin creating new blood cells.