A patient with urinary retention is unable to fully empty her bladder. While a primary reason for this in men is benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) – an enlarged prostate – in women, it may be due to pelvic organ prolapse including a rectocele or cystocele, constipation, bladder or kidney stones, urethral strictures, or an obstruction in the urinary tract. Other potential causes include a neurological issue where the brain fails to understand or properly communicate the fullness of the bladder. Left untreated, urinary retention can lead to chronic urinary tract infections, damage to the bladder or kidneys, and urinary incontinence. Potential treatments include urethral dilation and stenting and various surgical procedures.