Minimally invasive spinal fusion surgery is the permanent joining of one or more vertebrae within the spine via two “keyhole” incisions that allow for minimal injury to the surrounding tissues. This technique can be applied to both posterior lumbar fusion surgeries and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgeries, with the end result of less pain and a quicker recovery time for patients. Such surgeries are performed with the patient under general anesthesia and connected to a ventilator that helps them breathe. The surgeon makes two small incisions on either side of the spine where the problematic vertebrae are located and carefully separates the muscles using a retractor. The fusion is accomplished using surgical instrumentation in the form of screws and rods. Patients who undergo this type of operation can usually leave the hospital within one to three days and will receive instructions from physical and occupational therapists about how to perform basic maneuvers such as getting into and out of bed without reinjuring their spine.