Immunotherapy is a form of treatment for cancer and other diseases that focuses on spurring a person’s own immune system to fight against the disease. While some forms of immunotherapy (also known as biologic therapy) focus on stimulating the overall immune system, others are designed to help the immune system recognize and target cancer specifically. One type of immunotherapy employs monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies attach themselves to a specific antigen and then encourage the immune system to attack cells that contain that antigen. Other types of immunotherapy include medications called “immune checkpoint inhibitors,” preventive cancer vaccines such as the HPV vaccine, and “non-specific” immunotherapies such as injections of chemicals called cytokines that affect the way the body reacts to signals that an illness or infection is present.