Kids of all ages can develop kidney stones that may pass through their systems with no ill effects whatsoever if the stone is small enough. However, more substantial kidney stones can cause considerable pain and possibly even bleeding during urination, along with nausea and vomiting. Most of the time when a child has a kidney stone, it is due to a high concentration of calcium in their urine, which may be caused by a variety of factors such a genetics, insufficient fluids, a high fat diet, frequent UTIs, and metabolic disorders. When a stone is small enough to pass through the urinary tract, the only treatment necessary may be pain management via medications and having the child drink plenty of fluids to keep the object moving through their system. But when the stone cannot pass by itself, other treatments such as shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscope stone removal and percutaneous nephrolithotomy may be considered.