Lung surgery may be performed for purposes of investigating, removing or treating a lung or portion thereof that has been affected by disease or injury. When an entire lung is removed, the surgical procedure is called a pneumonectomy; when just a lobe of the lung is removed, the procedure is called a lobectomy. Lung transplants are among the most complex lung surgeries, while a “wedge resection” is a more limited operation to remove just a portion of a lobe. Lung biopsies are also a form of surgery in which a tissue sample of a suspicious growth is collected. Other lung surgeries may be performed to address fluid collection in the chest, to prevent a lung from collapsing, to remove blood clots or to eliminate an infection or cancerous growth. Lung surgery is performed with the patient under general anesthesia and can be approached via a traditional, “open” method called a thoracotomy or via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), a minimally invasive method in which the procedure takes place through several small incisions.