Surgery to remove a patient’s gallbladder, also called a cholecystectomy, may be recommended due to symptomatic gallstones or if the patient’s gallbladder is not functioning correctly in a condition known as biliary dyskinesia. Removal of the gallbladder is often achieved via laparoscopic (minimally invasive) approaches but depending on the patient, may need to be performed via a traditional, “open” procedure. A typical laparoscopic removal requires four small abdominal incisions through which the surgeon operates using a very small scope with a camera on the end that helps him or her to visualize the operating area and magnifies it on a video screen. Such procedures are often accompanied by the use of a special kind of X-ray called a cholangiogram. Alternatively, when the bile ducts that lead into the gallbladder and small intestine are blocked (whether by gallstones, a tumor or other obstruction), this blockage can be relieved by widening the biliary duct via endoscopic or percutaneous dilation. If and when surgery is required to clear gallstones from a duct, the entire gallbladder is often removed to protect against a recurrence of this problem.