Thoracic surgery refers to any surgical procedure within the chest cavity, including surgeries to address heart conditions. It may be performed for purposes of evaluating and managing diseases of the thoracic and thoracoabdominal aorta as well as vascular issues, lung and esophageal problems, tumors within the chest cavity, and airway obstructions and injuries within the chest. General thoracic surgeons, cardiothoracic surgeons and cardiovascular surgeons perform a wide variety of procedures to address any number of acquired and congenital conditions within the heart, lungs, esophagus and other chest organs. Their training includes four years of medical school followed by either a five-year residency in general surgery and two to three years in a cardiothoracic surgery residency or possibly a six-year integrated cardiothoracic surgery residency. Many have further training in a subspecialty of their choosing.