Colorectal surgeons can perform sphincteroplasty surgery as a means of helping patients with fecal incontinence or stool leakage to regain control of their bowels when other, less invasive measures have failed to correct the problem. Patients undergoing this surgery are typically women who have sustained obstetric trauma to the anal sphincter during childbirth. Prior to the procedure, the patient is given instructions for their “bowel prep,” not unlike what is required for a colonoscopy. The surgery itself accomplishes reconstruction of the circular sphincter muscle by cutting it, overlapping the ends so that one is on top of the other, and then securing them in that position. Following sphincteroplasty surgery, about half of patients are entirely cured of bowel incontinence.