Analyzing a person’s urine via visual, microscopic and chemical testing can help in the diagnosis of a variety of health issues ranging from kidney stones to a UTI (urinary tract infection), unmanaged diabetes, pregnancy and cancers of the kidneys and bladder. This same test can be invaluable in evaluating how well a patient's treatment plan is working after they are diagnosed with a particular condition. Depending on what your doctor is looking for, urinalysis may test for certain proteins, the presence of red or white blood cells, ketones, nitrites, glucose, protein, urine crystals, bacteria and other substances. Urine testing can be conducted from a single urine sample collected from the patient, which is then subjected to visual (macroscopic) inspection for color and cloudiness; a urine dipstick analysis for its pH level and other measures; and microscopic evaluation for multiple diagnostic purposes. Talk to your doctor about any medications you may be taking that could affect the outcome of your urine analysis.