Posterior percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) can be an effective alternative for patients with overactive bladder syndrome whose symptoms have not been successfully addressed via behavioral or drug therapies. Here, a fine needle is used to deliver a mild electrical current into a nerve located just above the ankle. The current is delivered to the lumbar-sacral nerves that control bladder function. PTNS treatments may need to be repeated over a period of 10-12 weeks to achieve the desired results. This is considered a less invasive method of treatment than sacral root neuromodulation, which requires that a special device be permanently implanted in the patient. Other conditions that PTNS may be used to treat include neurogenic bladder, pediatric voiding dysfunction, painful bladder syndrome and non-obstructive urinary retention.