Pelvic floor disorders such as prolapsed organs can often be detected in the course of a regular gynecologic exam. But when additional testing is needed to determine the cause of symptoms such as urinary or fecal incontinence, pelvic discomfort, constipation, pain or difficulty with urination, or chronic urinary tract infections, several diagnostic methods may be applied. Cystoscopy is a common procedure in which the bladder and urethra are closely examined using an instrument called a cystoscope. Urodynamic testing is another diagnostic method and focuses on the ability of the bladder, sphincters and urethra to store and release urine – it may be performed in multiple ways such as a pressure flow study, post-void residual measurement or uroflowmetry. Alternatively, anal manometry and endoanal ultrasound may be used to test the anal sphincter muscles, and a test called dynamic defecography can be employed to determine what is happening to the pelvic floor and rectum during a bowel movement.