Pediatric colonoscopy is a routine procedure that is typically performed for reasons other than detecting colon cancer – which is its primary purpose in adults. It is also performed differently in children than in adults with regard to preparation, technique, instrumentation and sedation methods. A child might require a colonoscopy to help his or her doctor determine the cause of chronic pelvic pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding or other conditions. That said, the test may be employed to check for cancer when a child has experienced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) for an extended period of time. Pediatric gastroenterologists can perform colonoscopies in children as young as newborns, and are skilled in techniques aimed at minimizing discomfort for their patients.