Many conditions can affect the rear part of the foot and ankle. Two common conditions that can cause pain to the bottom of the heel and may require surgical intervention are plantar fasciitis (an inflammation of a fibrous band of tissue in the bottom of the foot that extends from the heel bone to the toes) and heel spurs (often the result of stress on the muscles and fascia of the foot). Most causes of heel pain can be treated without surgery, but chronic heel pain due to an ongoing condition is corrected only through surgery. A surgical procedure called an osteotomy, is performed to relieve the pressure on the bone from heel calluses. The procedure involves cutting the metatarsal bone in a "V" shape, lifting the bone and aligning it with the other bones. This reduces the pressure and prevents formation of a heel callus.