Epilepsy is a disorder caused by surges of electrical signals inside the brain, resulting in recurrent seizures. Some people may simply stare blankly for a few seconds during a seizure, while others may experience full-fledged convulsions. Seizures don’t necessarily mean that a patient has epilepsy; this is why at least two unprovoked seizures are generally required for an epilepsy diagnosis. Symptoms of epilepsy include temporary confusion, staring spells, uncontrollable jerking movements in the arms and legs, and loss of consciousness and awareness. Seizures are often categorized into two groups: focal and general. Focal seizures appear to result from abnormal activity in just one part of the brain, while general seizures seem to involve all parts of the brain. Epilepsy doesn’t have an identifiable cause, but it may develop due to genetic factors, head trauma, certain medical conditions, dementia, prenatal injury and developmental disorders. Epilepsy is commonly treated with medication, dietary changes and the implementation of medical devices to help protect the patient and detect any abnormalities. Surgery may also be considered in more severe cases.