When a Pap test result is unclear or appears to show a small change in the cells of the cervix, the first course of action is usually to repeat the test, as it’s quite possible that the first result was a “false positive.” However, if a second Pap test comes back abnormal, or if a test reveals more serious changes in the cells of the cervix, your doctor may want to perform a colposcopy, which is an exam that allows him or her to more closely view the cervical and vaginal cells. If necessary, a biopsy of cervical tissue can then be performed. Depending on the underlying reason for an abnormal Pap test result, there are several treatments your doctor may recommend to address the problem. For example, the unhealthy cells may be destroyed using laser ablation or frozen via cryosurgery. Importantly, an abnormal Pap test does not usually indicate that the patient has cervical cancer, but possibly a pre-cancerous condition that can be treated via an in-office procedure.