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Whether you strained your ankle on a hike with your family or sprained it while playing your favorite sport, it’s important to know how to take care of it so it can heal properly. If you continue to use the strained or sprained ankle before it’s fully healed, you can create further damage keeping you from doing what you love longer.
From the signs of sprains and strains to the dos and don’ts of letting them heal, our orthopedic experts are here to help you feel whole again.
What is a High Ankle Sprain?
For starters, let's clarify the difference between a common low ankle sprain and a high ankle sprain. Three bones form the ankle joint in the lower leg: the tibia (shin bone), the fibula (outer bone next to the tibia) and the talus. The primary function of the ligaments in the ankle is stability. In the common ankle sprain, severity ranges from partial sprains to complete tears.
Athletes most commonly injure the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) when they “roll” the ankle with excessive force. Depending on the severity of the injury, athletes can return to sport as comfort permits with a step-by-step program with a physical therapist. A high ankle sprain is an injury that involves a different set of ligaments. These ligaments are located in between the tibia and fibula. This ligament is known as the syndesmosis. The primary role of the syndesmosis is to prevent the tibia and fibula from spreading too far apart. When you run and quickly change directions, the syndesmosis experiences extremely high forces.
The good news is: You can sometimes treat the pain of ankle sprains and strains at home.
But foot and ankle surgeon Zachary Cavins, DPM, FACFAS has advice on when you need to seek out a medical professional — and what you can do to strengthen the muscles in your feet, ankles and any other affected areas.
“Sprains can affect any ligaments in your body, but they most commonly occur near your ankles, knees and wrists. Strains affect muscles, with common injuries affecting areas in your shoulders, legs and back,” says Dr. Cavins.
Sprains and strains can happen in a variety of circumstances. Everything from overuse injuries (working out/playing sports too long without proper rest) to twisting/pulling something to sustaining an unfortunate fall can lead to a sprain or strain. There's no one activity that causes injuries more than others.
How Sprains and Strains Happen
A sprained ankle can occur when your foot turns inward, placing extreme tension on the ligaments of your outer ankle.
“A strain can occur similar to a sprain,” says Dr. Cavins, “where it may be a simple stretch in your muscle or tendon, or it may be a partial or complete tear in your muscle/tendon connection.”
What causes a high ankle sprain?
A high ankle sprain is caused by trauma to the syndesmosis, usually resulting from a sudden twisting or cutting motion while a person is running or jumping. They are most common in athletes who play high-impact running sports like football, soccer, basketball and lacrosse. The best way to avoid this injury is continual performance training for strength and mobility training.
The signs of a sprain include:
- Decreased range of motion
- Instability of the joint
What Are the Signs of High Ankle Sprain?
“You will typically feel a pain that radiates up your leg from the ankle,” explains Dr. Cavins, “each step you take may be quite painful.” High ankle sprains do not typically cause great swelling or bruising. This can be frustrating for athletes because a high ankle sprain generally does not have the traditional look of a bad ankle sprain. “For this reason, many people can be unaware of how severely they have injured themselves and may not rehabilitate as necessary for complete healing, putting them at risk for increased damage,” says Dr. Cavins.
The signs of a strain include:
- Bruising (either immediately or a few days later)
- Muscle cramping
- Muscle spasm
- Muscle weakness
How Sprains and Strains Are Diagnosed
A physical exam diagnoses most sprains and strains. Your medical professional will examine the affected joint or muscles and take you through your normal range of motion, watching for pain, tenderness, weakness or instability.
If there's a chance you've broken a bone, an X-ray may be ordered. An MRI may be needed to determine the extent of your injury because soft tissue, where sprains and strains occur, doesn't show up on X-rays.
How are High Ankle Sprains Diagnosed?
Your physical therapist will ask you what motion you performed when your injury occurred, assess your symptoms and conduct a physical exam. The exam may include a fibular compression test (also known as a high ankle sprain test or syndesmosis squeeze test). For this test, your physical therapist will place their hands on each side of your lower leg and squeeze the tibia and fibula together in a few different spots. If this causes pain that radiates down your leg, this suggests a high ankle sprain. However, additional tests may also need to be conducted to be sure you do not have a fractured fibula and determine the severity of the injury.
“It’s important to understand that because the structures involved in a syndesmotic sprain can lead to instability of the ankle, rehabilitation and recovery time can take much longer than a common ankle sprain,” explains Dr. Cavins. All ankle sprains are not the same. Recovery from a mild ankle sprain may take as little as several days, whereas recovery from a severe high ankle sprain may take several months. Complete ruptures may require surgical intervention with a six-month recovery.
Healing Sprains and Strains
How long a sprain or strain typically takes to heal varies based on the severity of your injury and how much you're still using the area after the injury. Recovery ranges from a couple of days to a few weeks.
You can do things in the first 24 – 48 hours to help alleviate pain and begin the healing process. “You should implement the RICE principles: Rest, apply ice for 15 – 20 minutes, compress (not too tight) and elevate above your heart,” says Dr. Cavins. If you don't see any improvement in a couple of days, you should see a medical professional to evaluate the extent of your injury.
“Physical therapy can help improve pain, motion, strength and recovery time. Also, it helps get you back to your normal activities quickly and safely, and you'll learn what to do and what not to do, so you don't reinjure yourself,” explains Dr. Cavins.
Dr. Cavins continues, “Ankle injuries should never be taken lightly and are too often mistreated or not treated at all. This can result in an ankle prone to problems, prolonged discomfort and possible re-injury, which can mean further reduced physical activity levels.”
And with an injury that never gets better, whether in your ankle or another area, it can become easy to slip into the habits of a sedentary lifestyle, leading to further long-term health complications.
Preventing Sprains and Strains
Regular stretching and strengthening exercises can help minimize your risks of sprains and strains and improve motion in all areas of the body. You can use various stretching techniques to ensure you have a full range of motion at all joints and lessen your chances of injuries.
Progressive strengthening exercises allow you to better stabilize yourself during activity. Balancing exercises train your body to know where it is in space and reduce your injury rate. Other tips for preventing sprains and strains include:
- Be in the right physical condition for the sport you're playing
- Eat healthy to keep your muscles strong
- Exercise daily
- Keep a healthy weight
- Try to exercise or play sports when you're alert and not tired
- Wear the right shoes for the sport you're playing
For more information about sprains and strains or to speak with an orthopedic specialist, visit VolusiaFlaglerOrtho.com.