Patients in need of hemodialysis treatment for kidney failure need to first undergo a vascular access procedure that creates a point at which their bloodstream can easily be accessed multiple times per week. One of three main types of vascular access is called an arteriovenous fistula. Here, an artery and vein are connected to one another to cause the vein to become enlarged over time so that it can be more easily accessed for dialysis. A second type of vascular access is via arteriovenous graft, where an artery and vein are connected using a piece of artificial tubing that is placed under the skin and accessed by puncturing it with a needle each time dialysis is required. The third type of venous access is provided via a venous catheter, where a tube is fitted into a large vein in the neck with a small portion of it coming out of the chest wall that can be connected to the dialysis machine. Due to potential complications such as infection and clogging, a venous catheter is considered a temporary measure that is used primarily in patients who require immediate dialysis.