Microlaparoscopy is a recent advancement in minimally invasive surgical techniques that is increasingly used in the diagnosis and treatment of multiple gynecologic conditions. It involves the use of newly developed, smaller surgical instruments that can be introduced via an incision as tiny as a needle stick. Miniaturized laparoscopes employed in this type of surgery may measure just two millimeters or less in diameter and can deliver excellent visualization of the operating field thanks to improved technologies. In the diagnostic sphere, microlaparoscopy can be employed to determine (and sometimes address) the cause of fertility issues in women. It is also used for “pain mapping” to determine the reason behind a woman’s chronic pelvic pain. In the operative sphere, it can be used to perform tubal occlusion, tubal gamete or embryo transfers and elimination of displaced endometrial tissue found outside of the uterus, among other therapies.