Genital reconstruction surgery is performed on small children who have birth defects or physical abnormalities of their genitalia that may interfere with their physical and social development, or to address injuries sustained to the sex organs. This surgery is distinctive from gender reassignment surgery, where an adult chooses to become a different sex. Sometimes referred to as pelvic reconstruction surgery, genital reconstruction addresses congenital or acquired conditions of the genitourinary tract and focuses on ensuring that a person’s body can function normally. Relatively recent advancements in surgical capabilities have made it possible, for example, to reconstruct the penis, scrotum, bladder, urethra and more following various traumas, genital cancers and problems related to Peyronie’s disease. Other conditions addressed by genital reconstruction include but are not limited to pelvic floor prolapse, urinary incontinence, vesicovaginal and rectourethral fistulas, and urethral diverticula.