Due to regular Pap and HPV testing, cervical cancer is among the most preventable kinds of cancer known to medicine today. When detected early, abnormal changes in the cells of the cervix can be treated before progressing to cervical cancer. In all but one percent of cases, patients diagnosed with cervical cancer have one of the 100+ forms of human papillomavirus (HPV), with the vast majority of these being the HPV-16 and HPV-18 viruses. While cervical cancer rarely has noticeable symptoms in its early stages, symptoms that may occur later include abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge, pain during intercourse or during urination, and unexplained pelvic pain. Upon discovery, cervical cancer can be treated with surgery along with radiation and chemotherapy, or some combination of these.